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A2 milk and A1 milk are two different types of milk.

A2 milk and A1 milk refer to two different types of milk based on the genetic variants of beta-casein proteins present in the milk. The distinction between A2 and A1 milk primarily relates to the composition of beta-casein, one of the major proteins found in cow’s milk.

  1. A2 Milk:
    • A2 milk contains beta-casein proteins that have the A2 genetic variant. Cows that naturally produce A2 milk have two copies of the A2 gene. This type of milk is considered by some to be a more traditional form of milk, similar to what might have been produced by older breeds of cows.
  2. A1 Milk:
    • A1 milk contains beta-casein proteins that have the A1 genetic variant. Cows that produce A1 milk have at least one copy of the A1 gene. This variant is associated with certain breeds of cows, including Holsteins and Friesians, which are common on many commercial dairy farms.

The primary difference between A2 and A1 milks is a single amino acid substitution in the beta-casein protein. A2 milk is believed by some to be easier to digest than A1 milk due to the absence of a particular peptide (beta-casomorphin-7) that is released during digestion of A1 milk and may cause discomfort in some individuals.


  1. Digestibility:
    • Some studies suggest that A2 milk may be better tolerated by individuals who experience discomfort or digestive issues after consuming milk. However, individual responses can vary.
  2. Availability:
    • A2 milk is available in markets where specific breeds of cows that naturally produce A2 milk are raised and milked. A2 milk can be sourced from breeds like the Guernsey, Jersey, and some types of Asian and African cattle.
  3. Research and Controversy:
    • The research on the health benefits or drawbacks of A2 milk compared to A1 milk is ongoing, and the topic remains somewhat controversial. While some individuals report feeling better with A2 milk, more research is needed to establish definitive conclusions.
  4. Personal Tolerance:
    • Individuals with lactose intolerance may still experience symptoms when consuming A2 milk, as A2 milk still contains lactose. It’s the protein composition that differs between A1 and A2 milk.
  5. Traditional Breeds:
    • Traditional breeds of cows, such as the Jersey and Guernsey, are known to produce predominantly A2 milk. In regions where these breeds are common, the milk produced is more likely to be A2.

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